GCSE

GCSE Paper 1

All four texts are reccomended reading

 

 

GCSE Paper 2

GCSE Paper 2

GCSE Paper 3

Revision Guides - Links to Amazon for students to 'Look Inside' 

   Henry VIII Revision Guide

   Cold War Revision Guide

     Nazi Germany Revision

           Cold War Revision

     Nazi Germany Revision 

        Medicine Revision 

Medicine in Britain, c1250–present and The British sector of the Western Front, 1914–18: injuries, treatment and the trenches

 

GCSE Paper 1

 

Assessment

 

Written examination: 1 hour and 15 minutes
30%* of the qualification
52 marks 

 

c1250–c1500: Medicine in medieval England

 

1 Ideas about the cause of disease and illness

 

Supernatural and religious explanations of the cause of disease

Rational explanations: the Theory of the Four Humours and the miasma theory; the continuing influence in England of Hippocrates and Galen.

 

2 Approaches to prevention and treatment 

 

Approaches to prevention and treatment and their connection with ideas about disease and illness: religious actions, bloodletting and purging, purifying the air, and the use of remedies

New and traditional approaches to hospital care in the thirteenth century

The role of the physician, apothecary and barber surgeon in treatment and care provided within the community and in hospitals, c1250–1500.

 

3 Case study 

 

Dealing with the Black Death, 1348–49; approaches to treatment and attempts to prevent its spread

 

Lessons

 

Lesson - Overview - Students will work through the booklet activity gaining a grasp of medical understanding, change and continuity

 

Ext- Students will use the BBC Learning Videos to complete a basic introductory overview of the course, focusing upon  the causes, treaments and prevention of dsease as well as key individuals:

 

Worksheet

 

BBC Teach - Medieval Medicine

BBC Teach - Renaissance Medicine

BBC Teach -18th Century Medicine

BBC Teach -19th Century Medicine 

BBC Teach - Modern Medicine

 

Lesson - Approaches to care

 

Lesson - The Black Death

 

Lesson - Medieval Apocalypse - Worksheet to support the BBC Documentary

Documentary

 

Lesson'Dirty Cities' - Medieval London - Worksheet to support the Dan Snow presented BBC Documentary

Teacher Guidance Film

 

Lesson - Why was there so little progress?

 

The British sector of the Western Front, 1914–18: surgery and treatment

 

 

1 The British sector of the Western Front, 1914–18: surgery and treatment

  1. The context of the British sector of Western Front and the theatre of war, including the rural landscape, the battle front, the trench system and the medical facilities behind the lines. 

 

  1. Conditions requiring medical treatment on the Western Front, including the problems of ill health caused by conditions in the trenches and the nature of wounds from rifles used by snipers and in battle and from explosives. The problem of shrapnel and wound infection. The effects of gas attacks, including the use of chlorine gas at Loos (1915), chlorine-phosgene at Ypres (1915) and mustard gas at Ypres (1917). 
  2. Recovery and treatment of the wounded. The problem in dealing with the high number of casualties, including in the Battle of the Somme. The RAMC and system of transport, treatment and facilities at various stages: aid post and field ambulance, dressing station, casualty clearing station and base hospital. 
  3. Developments in surgery and medicine, including: new techniques in the treatment of wounds and infection, the search for effective treatment after a gas attack, the attempts to deal with increased numbers of head injuries. 
  4. The historical context of medicine in the early twentieth century: the understanding of infection and moves towards aseptic surgery; Geoffrey Marshall’s work on anaesthetics; the development of x-rays and use of mobile x-ray units to detect shrapnel; blood transfusions – limitations caused by the need for donor-to-patient transfusions, developments in storing blood and blood banks. 

 

Question Guidance Films

 

History 9 -1 - Medicine and British Sector of the Western Front

 

Q1- Describe two features

Q2a - How Useful/Utility

Q2b - Follow Up

Q3 - Simmilarty/Difference

Q4 - Why was there change?

Q5&6 - How far do you agree?

 

How do you fix a face that hs been blown off by shrapnel? - BBC iwonder

 

2 Knowledge, selection and use of sources for historical enquiries

  1. Knowledge of national sources relevant to the period and issue, e.g. army records, national newspapers, government reports, medical articles. 
  2. Knowledge of local sources relevant to the period and issue, e.g. personal accounts, photographs, hospital records, army statistics. 
  3. Recognition of the strengths and weaknesses of different types of source for specific enquiries. 
  4. Framing of questions relevant to the pursuit of a specific enquiry. 
  5. Selection of appropriate sources for specific investigations. 

 

Ext - The Disruptors - Reading onb the future of generic based medicine

 

Superpower Relations and The Cold war

 GCSE Paper 2 Period Study

 

 

Assessment

 

Written examination: 1 hour and 45 minutes
40%* of the qualification
64 marks (32 for the period study and 32 for the British depth study)

 

Assessment overview Section A: Period study

Students answer three questions that assess their knowledge and understanding. The first two questions are compulsory. For the third question, students select two out of three parts.

 

Question Guidance Film

 

GCSE 9-1 History - Cold War 1941-1991 - How to answer the questions - Video Guidance

 

Section B: British depth study

Students answer a single three-part question that assesses their knowledge and understanding. The first two parts are compulsory. For the third part, students select one from a choice of two.

 

Key topic 1: The origins of the Cold War, 1941–58

 

1 Early tension between East and West

 

● The Grand Alliance. The outcomes of the Tehran, Yalta and Potsdam conferences. 

● The ideological differences between the superpowers and the attitudes of Stalin, Truman and Churchill. 

● The impact on US-Soviet relations of the development of the atomic bomb, the Long and Novikov telegrams 

   The creation of Soviet satellite states in Eastern Europe

 

Lessons

 

Lesson - Ideology - What is ideology and how does it affect both ourselves and countries?

 

Activity - QED - A Guide to Armageddon - How did the development of nuclear wars change the rivalry betwen the USA and USSR into a different type of international confrontation than had existed before?

 

Worksheet

 

Ext - NukeMaps

 

Ext - The Nuclear Revolution - Reading Article

 

Lesson - Introduction to the Cold War

 

Activity - Boardworks Presentation - What were the origins and causes of the Cold War and how did it emerge from an alliance that fought and defaeted both Germany and Japan?

 

Worksheet

 

Lesson - The Big Three - Tehran (1943), Yalta (1945), Potsdam (1945)

 

Activity - What was discussed, agreed and argued over. How did the conferences contribute to the Cold War?

 

Activity - Boardworks Presentation

 

Worksheet

Music - Suspicious Minds

 

Ext - How Empires Die - Reading Article

 

Ext - Cold War Ep.1 - Comrades - Both the United States and the Soviet Union drifted apart after the Russian Revolution of 1917, the Russian Civil War and the Paris Peace Conference. Diplomatic and extensive trading relationships were established under Roosevelt, but relations soured following the Soviet occupation of the Baltic States and eastern Poland. After Hitler broke the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact the Western powers worked closely with the Soviet Union during the Second World War. Distrust reemerged as Stalin's plans for placing Eastern Europe in the Soviet Union's sphere of influence became apparent towards the war's end, and came to the fore at the Potsdam Conference, just before the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Interviewees include George F. KennanVladimir Yerofeyev, Zoya Zarubina, Hugh Lunghi and George Elsey. The pre-credits scene shows the US Congress nuclear bunker at The Greenbrier, and introduces the television series by explaining how for several decades the world was close to a nuclear holocaust.

 

Lesson - The Long & Novikov Telegrams - How did their interpretations in Washington and Moscow contribute to the Cold War?

 

2 The development of the Cold War 

 

● The impact on US-Soviet relations of the Truman Doctrine and the Marshall Plan, 1947. 

● The significance of Cominform (1947), Comecon (1949) and the formation of NATO (1949). 

● Berlin: its division into zones. The Berlin Crisis (blockade and airlift) and its impact. 

   The formation of the Federal Republic of Germany and German Democratic Republic. 

 

Lessons

 

Lesson - The Marshall Plan and Truman Doctrine

 

Ext - Cold War Ep.3 - The Marshall Plan - For both altruistic and self-serving purposes, the United States provides massive grants of aid to the countries of Europe in the form of the Marshall Plan. Stalin, concerned that the intent of the Marshall Plan is to weaken Soviet influence in Europe, prevents countries in its orbit from participating, and establishes the rival Council for Mutual Economic Assistance. Communists come to power through a coup in Czechoslovakia in 1948. Tito, while originally aligned to the Soviet Union, adopts a more independent foreign policy and eventually switches to receiving Marshall Aid Assistance. The CIA and the Catholic Church conspire to help oust the Italian Communist Party and its coalition allies in the 1948 Italian election. The Marshall Plan has the effect of modernising European economies and societies, bringing Western Europe closer together, and closer to the United States. Interviewees include Vladimir YerofeyevGianni Agnelli and Giulio Andreotti. The pre-credits scene portrays the squalor in post-war Italy, and Truman delivering his Truman Doctrine speech of 1947.

 

Lesson - Cominform, Comecon, The Warsaw Pact and NATO - How diod their establishment reflect the deterirotaing circumstances of the Cold War and contribute to it?

 

Lesson - The Arms Race - An arms race simulation played out against the context of the Cold War

 

Music - Lets go Crazy

 

3 The Cold War intensifies 

 

● The significance of the arms race and the formation of the Warsaw Pact. 

● Events in 1956 leading to the Hungarian Uprising, and Khrushchev’s response. 

● The international reaction to the Soviet invasion of Hungary. 

 

Lessons

 

Lesson - The Berlin Blockade

 

Worksheet

Video - Historyfile

Music - Take my breath away

 

Ext - Cold War Ep.4 - Berlin - By 1947, the United States placed as a high priority the revival of the German economy, an approach opposed by the Soviet Union. After the introduction of a Deutsche Mark the Soviet Union began to allow increasingly stringent checks on passenger and cargo flows travelling to the French, British and American sectors of Berlin, located in the heart of East Germany. This ultimately led to a blockade on all rail and road transport linking West Berlin, but an extensive airlift operation (Operation Vittles) allowed the city to survive. The Communists were however successful in staging a putsch in the Berlin municipal government, eventually leading to the divisions of both Berlin and Germany. Interviewees include Gail HalvorsenSir Freddie Laker and Clark Clifford. The pre-credits scene shows the Berlin airlift in operation.

 

Lesson - The Formation of the FDR and GDR

 

Students will study fact files on both East and West Germany and understand how the deteriorating relations between the USA and USSR left the original Yalta agreed partition of Germany into four zones of occupation hanging in limbo. hey will then be tested on their understanding.

 

Unable to agree on a united way forward, the western allies, spurred on by a reaction to Stalin's percieved hostile moves over Berlin united their three zones of occupation into the FDR. Stalin's response was to organise his zone of occupation into the GDR. Separated by the Iron Curtain, Germany would be split into two countries, mutually hostile to one another.

 

West Berlin, deep inside the GDR however, would remain a route by which over 3 million East Germans would escape to the west. Ultimately, this would result in Kruschev building the Berlin Wall in order to prevent the exodus.

 

Lesson - The Hungarian Uprising and Kruschev's response

 

Worksheet

Video - Historyfile

 

Ext - Cold War Ep.5 - Supporting Worksheet - After Stalin - Nikita Khrushchev becomes Soviet leader after the death of Stalin. Khrushchev rolls back a number of oppressive measures that existed under Stalin, restores relations with Yugoslavia and redirects resources to consumer needs. In a secret speech to the Soviet leadership he condemns Stalin's ruthless rule. West Germany is allowed to rearm, provoking the formation of the Warsaw Pact. Khruschev still wants Eastern Europe to remain within the Soviet orbit - he sends in troops to quell revolts in East Germany, Poland and, most significantly, Hungary. Interviewees include Anatoly Dobrynin, Charles Wheeler and Sergei Khrushchev. The pre-credits scene shows life in Soviet Union under Stalin's personality cult.

 

Key topic 2: Cold War crises, 1958–70 

 

1 Increased tension between East and West 

 

● The refugee problem in Berlin, Khrushchev’s Berlin ultimatum (1958), and the summit meetings of 1959–61. 

● Soviet relations with Cuba, the Cuban Revolution and the refusal of the USA to recognise Castro’s government. The significance of the Bay of Pigs incident. 

● Opposition in Czechoslovakia to Soviet control: the Prague Spring. 

 

Lessons

 

Lesson - Berlin and the Paris and Vienna Summits

 

With the Cold War changed after the death of Stalin, the issue of Berlin remains. Impossible to defend by the West, Eisenhower is more open to a political solution to the issue of the isolated city. Krushchev will issue an ultimatum on this point in the light of the city serving as an exit route to millions of disaffected East Germans and, therefore in his opinion violating the Yalta agreements over the city. Attempts to. ove forward after the Wests decsion to ignore his ultimatum end following the failure of the Paris Summit after the shooting down of the US U2 spy plane.

 

Following the election of JFK, Berlin again will become central to the conflict as the city serves as a means of supporting each leaders legitimacy to rule their respective countries.JFK uses Berlin to illustrate his power, prestige and legitimacy having one the narrowest election in US Presidential history and defelcting claims thta he is weak on communism following the failure at The Bay of Pigs. Krushchev equally needs to address the issue of Berlin to hold onto power in the USSR and emove the symbol of West Berlin.

 

Lesson - The Bay of Pigs

 

With the Colld War in Europe deadlocked both sides seek diffrent opportunities to gain the upper hand. The USSR takes the lead in both the space race and expolits the Cuban Revolution of 1959 to lure Fidel Castro into the Soviet spehere of interest. A communist state only 70 miles from Florida cannot be tolertated by the USA and Eisenhower plans to topple the new government through the use of disaffcected anti-Castro, Cuban exiles. JFK will inherit this plan in the first weeks of his administration and fatally decide not to support the invasion with US air support for fear of directly antagonising the USSR.leading to the failure of the invasion.

 

Consequently, Castro will fear future US attempts to overthrow him, driving his closer into the hands of Krushchev, whilst JFK will  not be allowed to ever look weak again in tolertaing the spread of communism. This will be tested when Krushchev offer nuclear weapons to Cuba as a defence against future US aggression.....

 

Ext - Cold War - Ep.10 - Fidel Castro comes to power following the Cuban Revolution. Cuba aligns itself with the Soviet Union and the government starts nationalising American interests, resulting in the United States imposing an economic boycott, and the failed Bay of Pigs Invasion. Following the detection of Soviet medium range missiles stationed in Cuba, the United States imposes a blockade on the island, and the Soviet Union mobilises for war. The Cuban Missile Crisis is eventually resolved through secret negotiations, in which the United States and the USSR agree to withdraw missiles from Cuba and Turkey respectively. Interviewees include Fidel Castro, Walter Cronkite, Pierre Salinger and Theodore Sorensen. The pre-credits scene has interviews of Fidel Castro, Robert McNamara and Anatoly Dobrynin explaining how close they felt the world was to a nuclear holocaust.

 

Lesson - The Prague Spring - What facrtors contributed to the events within Czechoslovakia in 1968?

 

Ext - Cold War - Ep14 - Likewise the Soviet Union started the decade with growing openness and optimism. There was also an emerging cohort of youth with no memory of the privations and purges of the past, and who had a taste for Western music and fashion that alarmed the established order. Khrushchev sought, with limited success, to make the Soviet consumer economy more affluent, and he initiated housing construction and the poorly organised Virgin Lands Campaign. Khrushchev's erratic leadership style, his handling of the Cuban Missile Crisis and a poor 1963 harvest eventually led to his removal from power. Czechoslovakia had an even more profound transformation under Alexander Dubček, who introduced human rights and free market reforms. However the Prague Spring was opposed by Soviet Premier Leonid Brezhnev, and was ended abruptly in 1968. Interviewees include Miloš Forman, Vladimir Semichastny, Vasil Biľak and Yevgeny Yevtushenko. The pre-credits scene show Khrushchev and Czechoslovak leader Antonín Novotný demonstrating solidarity in 1964, in contrast to the Soviet Union ruling by brute force four years later.

 

2 Cold War crises 

 

● The construction of the Berlin Wall, 1961. 

● The events of the Cuban Missile Crisis. 

● The Brezhnev Doctrine and the re-establishment of Soviet control in Czechoslovakia. 

 

Lessons

 

Lesson - The Berlin Wall - What was the on-hgoing naartive of events that contrbuted to Kruschev's decision to build the Wall in Berlin that would turn an already symbolic city into something even

 

Ext - Cold War - Ep.9 - West Germany, and West Berlin, become more affluent, prompting a surge of East Germans to cross the borders in Berlin, kept open under the Four Power Agreement on Berlin. Khrushchev's demands that the Americans, British and French leave Berlin are opposed, and prospects for a peaceful resolution are dashed after the Soviets pull out of the Paris Summit in 1960 as a response to the U-2 incident. Overnight on August 12, 1961 East German police and military units divided the city of Berlin, and work commenced on building the Berlin Wall. Initial tensions culmulate in a stand-off between US and Soviet tanks. Kennedy visits Berlin in June 1963 and delivers his Ich bin ein Berliner speech. Interviewees include Anatoly Gribkov, Valentin Falin, Stefan Heym, Egon Bahr, Raymond L. Garthoff and Conrad Schumann. The pre-credits scene features East Berliners seeking to flee into the West.

 

Lesson - The Cuban Missile Crisis

 

Video - Thirteen Days - Movie Trailer

Video - The Cuban Missile Crisis - Ted Ed

 

Ext - Cold War - Ep.10 - Fidel Castro comes to power following the Cuban Revolution. Cuba aligns itself with the Soviet Union and the government starts nationalising American interests, resulting in the United States imposing an economic boycott, and the failed Bay of Pigs Invasion. Following the detection of Soviet medium range missiles stationed in Cuba, the United States imposes a blockade on the island, and the Soviet Union mobilises for war. The Cuban Missile Crisis is eventually resolved through secret negotiations, in which the United States and the USSR agree to withdraw missiles from Cuba and Turkey respectively. Interviewees include Fidel Castro, Walter Cronkite, Pierre Salinger and Theodore Sorensen. The pre-credits scene has interviews of Fidel Castro, Robert McNamara and Anatoly Dobrynin explaining how close they felt the world was to a nuclear holocaust.

 

Lesson - The Brezhnev Doctrine

 

Following the fall of Kruschev, how would the new leadership of Leonid Brezhnev deal with the economic and millitay challeges posed by the West. As Western Europe becomes increasingly prosperous the decline and stagnation of the Communist Bloc becaomes even more apparent. The Czech economy is crucial to the USSR yet, its decline is causing unrest in a country with both borders to West Germany and the USSR. How much refrom will Brezhnev allow the new Czech leader, Dubcek, to undertake? The ghosts of Hungary in 1956 rear their heads again.

 

Ext - Cold War - Ep14 - Likewise the Soviet Union started the decade with growing openness and optimism. There was also an emerging cohort of youth with no memory of the privations and purges of the past, and who had a taste for Western music and fashion that alarmed the established order. Khrushchev sought, with limited success, to make the Soviet consumer economy more affluent, and he initiated housing construction and the poorly organised Virgin Lands Campaign. Khrushchev's erratic leadership style, his handling of the Cuban Missile Crisis and a poor 1963 harvest eventually led to his removal from power. Czechoslovakia had an even more profound transformation under Alexander Dubček, who introduced human rights and free market reforms. However the Prague Spring was opposed by Soviet Premier Leonid Brezhnev, and was ended abruptly in 1968. Interviewees include Miloš Forman, Vladimir Semichastny, Vasil Biľak and Yevgeny Yevtushenko. The pre-credits scene show Khrushchev and Czechoslovak leader Antonín Novotný demonstrating solidarity in 1964, in contrast to the Soviet Union ruling by brute force four years later.

 

3 Reaction to crisis 

 

● Impact of the construction of the Berlin Wall on US-Soviet relations. Kennedy’s visit to Berlin in 1963. 

● The consequences of the Cuban Missile Crisis: the ‘hotline’, the Limited Test Ban Treaty 1963; the Outer Space Treaty 1967; and the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty 1968. 

● International reaction to Soviet measures in Czechoslovakia. 

 

Key topic 3: The end of the Cold War, 1970–91 

 

1 Attempts to reduce tension between East and West 

 

● Détente in the 1970s, SALT 1, Helsinki, and SALT 2. 

● The significance of Reagan and Gorbachev’s changing attitudes. 

● Gorbachev’s ‘new thinking’ and the Intermediate-Range Nuclear Force (INF) Treaty 1987. 

 

Lessons

 

Lesson - Detente 

 

A series of events would lead to the period in the 1970's that have been termed as the period of 'Detente'. This was a period of decreased tensions between the Superpowers as both parties, for their own reasons sought to defuse the tensions of the 1960's. The Cuban Crisis made both sides realise how close they came to nuclear armageddon whilst the USA wanted to mend rifts over her protrcated and unsuccesful war in Vietnam. On the Russian side, poor economic performance led to the need to defuse the tension to divert more money to raising living standards rather than expanding the armed forces. Additionally, the Sino-Soviet spilit of the 1960's forced both Russia and China to seek more favourable relations with the USA.

 

The principal consequence of of this improvement inrealtions would be the two SALT Treaties and the Helsinki Accords. The first SALT Treaty would limit the development of new weapons whilst the more ambitious SALT II aimed to further reduce nuclear weapons. The Helsinki Accords showed the depth a breadth of Detente through the exapnsion of talks to incorperate humand rights. It emphaisied that both systems, however contrasting, sought the best for their people and respective societies.

 

Ext - Cold War - Ep 16 - Detente - Supporting Worksheet - Nixon builds closer relations with China and the USSR, hoping to leverage an honourable US exit from Indochina. The Soviet Union is fearful of a US-Chinese alliance, but summits between Nixon and Brezhnev lead to a relaxation of tensions and concrete arms control agreements. Willy Brandt's Ostpolitik strategy also normalises West German relations with East Germany, the USSR and Poland. Although deeply unpopular domestically, US bombing of Cambodia and Hanoi succeeds in bringing North Vietnam to the negotiating table, leading to the Paris Peace Accords in 1972. Deeply resented by South Vietnam, the Accords ultimately fail to prevent Saigon's fall three years later. In 1975 reapproachment continued with the Helsinki Accords, which enshrined human rights and territorial integrity, and the symbolic Apollo–Soyuz Test Project. Interviewees include Melvin Laird, Valeri Kubasov, Winston Lord, John Ehrlichman and Gerald Ford. The pre-credits scene shows a Soviet cartoon demonstrating the futility of the arms race.

 

Music - All you need is love

 

Lesson - The Signifiacance of Reagan and Gorbachev's changing attitudes

 

2 Flashpoints 

 

● The significance of the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan, the Carter Doctrine and the Olympic boycotts. 

● Reagan and the ‘Second Cold War’, the Strategic Defence Initiative. 

 

Lessons 

 

Lesson - The Soviet invasion of Afghanistan

 

Music - Two Tribes

Video - The Soviet Invasion of Afganistan

 

The Soviet invasion of 1979 would ended the promise of Detente and emphaisis the pragmatic nature of the thaw of the 1970's. Soviet overtures to the West were not as important as securing their southern border in the short term nor, preventing the spread of Islamic fundemenatlism inside their borders in the long term. The US, though embracing Detente would not except that the Brezhnev Doctrine was applicable outside of Eastern Europe.

 

The US response was the Cater Doctrine. US President JImmy Carter was forced to change US foreign policy from one of Detente to one of potential confrontation. In reposnse to the Soviet move south into Afghanisatn and potentially the Persian Gulf and Indoan Ocean he announced the Carter Doctrine. This would express the intent of the US to defend the Persian Gulf and ensure the flow of oil to the West. He additionally committed the US to a potential peacetime draft of eligible men and the development of rapid reaction forces to deply at short notice anywere in the world. It marked the end of Detente and the start of the second Cold War.

 

As if to emphahsise the sudden the deterioration of relations the US decided to boycott the Moscow Olympics of 1980. This was an easy way to protets against the Afghan invasion and hurt the USSR symbolically. It was not surprising that the USSR reciprocated in 1984 by a reciprocal boycott of the Los Angeles Olympics.

 

Ext - Cold War - Ep.20 - Soldiers of God - Nur Mohammad Taraki comes to power in Afghanistan and attempts to modernise the country on Marxist-Leninist lines, provoking a rebellion from more traditional power brokers in the country. The Soviets are initially reluctant to intervene militarily, but respond after Taraki is violently replaced by Hafizullah Amin who is considered to be destabilising influence. The Soviets invade Afghanistan, and soon find themselves unprepared facing a hostile army of mujahideen insurgents, secretly armed by the Americans who see the war as an opportunity to wear down the Soviet Union. To achieve mobility in Afghanistan's rugged terrain the Soviet Union uses helicopters, but are thwarted by Stinger missiles. Atrocities are committed by Soviet and mujahideen forces. Eventually Soviet forces would leave Afghanistan under the terms of the Geneva Accords, but bloodshed would continue with rival mujahideen forces fighting each other. Interviewees include Caspar Weinberger, Artyom Borovik and Zbigniew Brzezinski. The pre-credits scene shows a battle in progress and presents the views of the superpowers - the Soviet Union did not want to lose face by being defeated in a proxy war.

 

Lesson - Reagan, The Second Cold War and SDI

 

Music - Star Wars

Music - The Final Countdown

 

Jimmy Carter failed to win a second term as President, but the deterioration in the Cold War laid the way for a hardline, anti-communist President to win the Whitehouse in 1980. Ronald Reagan, a former actor, became the next President. With a strong economy behind him and the technological innovations of the 1980's Reagan was prepared to escalate the Cold war in order to win it. With his mantra of 'Keep up or, drop out'  he challenged the USSR to compete in another arms race. With a creaking economy and discontenetd population the USSR could ill-afford another competeition. Two elderly Soviet leaders, Yuri Andropov and Constantine Cherneko would succeed Brezhnev , but both fail to afddress the challenges that the USSR faced.

 

When Reagan challenged the US to take its innovation into space he planned to build a space based defence system that would render MAD obselete and simply remove the Soviet threat. This would be called the Strategic Defense Initiative or SDI. The media coined the phrase 'Star Wars'

 

Ext - Cold War - Ep.22 - Reagan's 1983 "Evil Empire" speech sets the tone for a more aggressive US posture against the Soviet Union, and the costly arms race is renewed. He hopes that space-based anti-missile systems known as Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) could render nuclear weapons obsolete, but the Soviet Union is concerned of upsetting the MAD paradigm that had kept the world safe. Gorbachev assumes power in the Soviet Union, setting to reform the Soviet economy and encourage greater openness. He bonds well with both Reagan and Margaret Thatcher, charismatic to Soviet sensibilities, but the SDI issue prevents arms control agreements being made in Geneva Summit or Reykjavík. The weakness of the Soviet system is revealed by the Chernobyl disaster and Mathias Rust's Red Square stunt. Knowing the Soviet Union could not compete with SDI without the economic welfare of its people being severely curtailed, whose exposure to popular culture and foreign media has led to raised expectations, Gorbachev eventually agrees to a landmark agreement, the Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces Treaty. Disarmament commences, under the maxim of doveryai, no proveryai. Interviewees include Donald Regan, Sir Charles Powell, Roald Sagdeev and Mikhail Gorbachev. The pre-credits scene shows an advertisement for Reagan's 1984 election campaign.

 

3 The collapse of Soviet control of Eastern Europe

 

● The impact of Gorbachev’s ‘new thinking’ on Eastern Europe: the loosening Soviet grip on Eastern Europe. 

● The significance of the fall of the Berlin Wall. 

● The collapse of the Soviet Union and its significance in bringing about the end of the Warsaw Pact

 

Lessons

 

Lesson - Gorbachev's New Thinking

 

Music - My Way

 

Lesson - The Fall of the Berlin Wall

 

Music - David Hasselhoff

Music - Wind of Change

Worksheet

Video - The Berlin Wall - Ted Ed

 

Ext - Cold War - Ep.23 - Supporting Worksheet​ - Gorbachev makes clear Eastern European countries were free to determine their own destinies. In Poland Solidarity enters into negotiations with the Government, and would end up winning a landslide election. In Hungary the Government chooses to symbolically reinter Imre Nagy, and open its frontier with Austria, which is then crossed by increasing numbers of holidaying East Germans. Erich Honecker refuses to implement reforms, despite subtle pressure from Gorbachev and growing protests across East Germany. The bloody end to dissent in China is never far from the minds of protesters. Just as protests reach a peak, Soviet forces in East Germany are stood down, and Honecker is replaced by an unimpressive Egon Krenz. As a concession travel restrictions are lifted but the new regulations are miscommunicated, and the Berlin Wall is suddenly and irrevocably breached by masses of East Germans. In the momentum, the fate of communism in East Germany is sealed. Interviewees include Mikhail Gorbachev, Miklós Németh, Egon Krenz and George H. W. Bush. The pre-credits scene includes Gorbachev explaining that by 1989, force alone could not secure the world.

 

Lesson - The Fall of the Soviet Union

 

Music - Go West

Video - Crash Course

 

Ext - Cold War - Ep.24 - Conclusion - Supporting Worksheet - Gorbachev and Bush meet at Malta in December 1989 to consider the recent dramatic events. Only the previous week the Communist government resigned in Czechoslovakia; and shortly Nicolae Ceaușescu would be deposed and executed in the bloody Romanian Revolution. Gorbachev permits German reunification and removes Soviet troops from Europe, but fails to secure financial support from the West. As the Soviet economy collapses, Gorbachev faces opposition from both reformers and hardliners. Sharing their abhorence of Soviet disintegration, Gorbachev brings in hardliners to his government and cracks down on the Lithuanian independence movement. However they later turn on Gorbachev and stage a coup. Boris Yeltsin is instrumental in rallying the public and military to defeat the coup. Sidelining Gorbachev, Yeltsin sets the course for Russia to leave the Soviet Union by establishing the Commonwealth of Independent States. The Soviet Union ends on 25 December 1991, and in his Christmas Day address Bush announces the Cold War is over. The cost of the Cold War is considered in retrospect. Interviewees include Mircea Dinescu, Alexander Rutskoy and Condoleezza Rice. The pre-credits scene features Bush and Gorbachev explaining how uncertain the world had suddenly become.

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Henry VIII and His Ministers

 GCSE Paper 2 Period Study

 

 

Assessment

 

Written examination: 1 hour and 45 minutes
40%* of the qualification
64 marks (32 for the period study and 32 for the British depth study)

 

Assessment overview Section A: Period study

Students answer three questions that assess their knowledge and understanding. The first two questions are compulsory. For the third question, students select two out of three parts.

Section B: British depth study

Students answer a single three-part question that assesses their knowledge and understanding. The first two parts are compulsory. For the third part, students select one from a choice of two.

 

The Course

 

Key Topic 1: Henry VIII and Wolsey, 1509-29

 

Lessons

 

Lesson - Inside the mind of a tyrant - Ep1. Prince - How did the young 'spare' become the man he became. Starkey investigates the influences of both his mother, father and upbringing as shaping factors in determing the type of King he became.

 

Worksheet

Documentary

 

Peter Ackroyd - The History of England Vol II - Tudors - Chp 1 - Hallelujah  - Supporting Worksheet for wider reading and extension

 

Lesson - The Young King and his Country - England in 1509: society and government. The young Henry and his acession to the throne, his character and views on sovereignty and monarchy. His personal style of government and reliance on 'new men' promoted through a meritocratic system from the middle classes. What were his strengths, weaknesses and aims as a monarch. How could these be reconciled with the realities of Englands European position, millitary and financial strengths.

 

Lesson - Wolsey - How did Henry's first Lord Chancellor rsie through the ranks of both Church and State to assume the position and power that he attained. Students will study how a man like Wolsey was able to relieve the Knig of the burdens of government, allowing Henry to enjoy the power and prestige without the responsibility of government.

 

How did Wolsey balance the needs of England against the whims of his monarch and respond to his capricious moods and ambitions?

 

Peter Ackroyd - The History of England Vol II - Tudors - Chp 2 - All in scarlet  - Supporting Worksheet for wider reading and extension

 

Lesson - Inside the mind of a tyrant - Ep2. Warrior - How did Henry's often conflicting personal and dynastic aims clash and how did Wolsey reconcile these into both domestic and foreign policy?

 

Worksheet

Documentary

 

Lesson The King's Great Matter

 

Documentary - Lucy Worsley - Six Wives - Ep1. - Catherine and Anne

 

Lesson - The Fall of Wolsey - How did the Kings 'Can do man' get confronted with a situation that he neither anticipated nor could resolve. What a Pope had approved, Wolsey could not undo. Pope Clement, a victim of circumatance and held hostage by the forces of Charles V could not sanction any divorce leaving Wolsey impotent and victim of Henry's wrath. Wolsey will discover that past triumphs cannot sustain him when he fails to deliver.

 

The Tudors - Wolsey's downfall Pt1

The Tudors - Wolsey's downfall Pt2

The Tudors - Wolsey's downfall Pt3

The Tudors - Wolsey's downfall Pt4

The Tudors - Wolsey's downfall Pt5

 

Lesson - Cromwell - How did he succeeed where his mentor a predocessor had failed? Students will study howThomas Cromwell brought a fresh perspective to the King's Great Matter by by approaching the stalemate from a politicala nd legal angle, rather than the theological approach taken by Wolsey.

 

Henry VIII's Enforcer - The Rise and Fall of Thomas Cromwell - Worksheet to support the BBC Diarmaid McCulloch documentary

 

Lesson - The execution of Anne Boleyn - How did a Queen, so patiently in the making fall so quickly? Students will study a variety of factors that contributed to Anne's demise

 

Anne Boleyn: Since my coronation, there is a new England

Anne Boleyn vs Thomas Cromwell | History - The Last Days of Anne Boleyn

Was Anne guilty? | History - The Last Days of Anne Boleyn

 

 

Lesson - Jane Seymour

 

Documentary - Lucy Worsley - Six Wives - Ep2. Anne and Jane

 

England in 1509

2 The rise of Wolsey and his policies

Reasons for Wolsey's rise to power. His persdonality, roles and wealth

Wolsey's reform: enclosures, finace and justice. The Eltham Ordinances

Reasons for and reactions to the Aimicable Grant

Lessons

The rsie of Wolsey and his polices

Wolsey's reforms

Wolsey's domestic polices

Test

3 Wolsey’s foreign policy

●  Aims of Wolsey’s foreign policy.

●  Successes and failures, including relations with France and the Holy Roman Empire, the Treaty of London (1518), the ‘Field of the Cloth of Gold’ (1520) and increasing difficulties in the 1520s.

Lessons

  • Wolsey’s Foreign Policy

 

  • Wolsey’s Foreign Policy – Success or Failure?

 

  • Test

 

4 Wolsey, Catherine, the succession and annulment

 

●  Catherine of Aragon and the succession.

●  Henry’s reasons for and attempts to gain an annulment. Opposition to the annulment, including the role of Pope Clement VII.

●  Reasons for Wolsey’s fall from power, including the failure of the divorce proceedings in London, 1529. The influence of the Boleyns.

Lessons

- Catherine of Aragon and the succession

- Henry's reasons for divorce & opposition

- Wolsey's fall from power

- Rise of Ann Boleyn and Test

- Failure to gain an annulment essay

Key topic 2: Henry VIII and Cromwell, 1529–40

1 Cromwell’s rise to power, 1529–34

●  Personality and early career, including service to Wolsey, election as MP and eventual membership of the Royal Council.

●  Handling of the king’s annulment and influence over Henry. Role as the king’s Chief Minister.

Lessons

 

2 Cromwell, and the king’s marriages

●  Reasons for the fall of Anne Boleyn, including the role of Cromwell.

●  Jane Seymour: marriage, heir and death. The influence of the Seymours.

Lessons

 

3 Cromwell and government, 1534–40

●  Reform of government and royal finance.

●  The management and use of parliament.

4 The fall of Cromwell

●  The significance of Henry’s marriage to Anne of Cleves.

●  Reasons for Cromwell’s fall from power in 1540, including the influence of the Duke of Norfolk.

Lessons

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Key topic 3: The Reformation and its impact, 1529–40

1 The break with Rome

●  Henry as ‘Defender of the Faith’. Reasons for Henry’s campaign against the Pope and the Catholic Church, 1529–33.

●  The significance of the Act of Succession and the Act of Supremacy 1534. Cromwell’s role in their enforcement, including the use of oaths and treason laws.

Lessons

 

2 Opposition to, and impact of, Reformation, 1534–40

●  Elizabeth Barton (the Nun of Kent) and John Fisher.

●  The significance of opposition from Thomas More.

●  Impact of the Reformation on the English Church, including the work of Thomas Cranmer and the influence of Thomas Cromwell.

Lessons 

 

 

Avaliable from my TES Shop

 

9-1 Topic 1: Henry & Wolsey 1509 - 1529 - Learning Placemat
9-1 Topic 2: Henry & Cromwell 1529-40 - Learning Placemat
9-1 Topic 3: The Impact of the Break with Rome - Learning Placemat

 

Peter Ackroyd - The History of England Vol II - Tudors - Chp 1 - Hallelujah  - Supporting Worksheet for wider reading and extension

Peter Ackroyd - The History of England Vol II - Tudors - Chp 2 - All in scarlet  - Supporting Worksheet for wider reading and extension

Peter Ackroyd - The History of England Vol II - Tudors - Chp 3 - Heretic!  - Supporting Worksheet for wider reading and extension

Peter Ackroyd - The History of England Vol II - Tudors - Chp 4 - The woes of marriage  - Supporting Worksheet for wider reading and extension

Peter Ackroyd - The History of England Vol II - Tudors - Chap 5 - Into court - Supporting Worksheet for wider reading and extension

 

David Starkey - Henry VIII - Inside the Mind of a Tyrant - Ep1 - Prince 1485 -1509 - Supporting Worksheet

Documentary

David Starkey - Henry VIII - Inside the Mind of a Tyrant - Ep2 - Warrior 1509 -1525 - Supporting Worksheet

Documentary

David Starkey - Henry VIII - Inside the Mind of a Tyrant - Ep3 - Lover 1526 - 1536 - Supporting Worksheet

Documentary

David Starkey - Henry VIII - Inside the Mind of a Tyrant - Ep4 - Tyrant 1533 - 1547 - Supporting Worksheet

Documentary

 

Henry VIII's Enforcer - The Rise and Fall of Thomas Cromwell - Worksheet to support the BBC Diarmaid McCulloch documentary

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=m8LM8hSiFoYWeimar and Nazi Germany 1918-1939

GCSE Paper 3 - Modern Depth

Assessment

Written examination: 1 hour and 20 minutes 30%* of the qualification
52 marks

Assessment overview Section A

Students answer a question based on a provided source and a question that assesses their knowledge and understanding.

Section B

Students answer a single four-part question, based on two provided sources and two provided interpretations.

Assessment/Marking/Feedback Templates

 

 

Key topic 1: The Weimar Republic 1918–29

 

1 The origins of the Republic, 1918–19

  1. The legacy of the First World War. The abdication of the Kaiser, the armistice and revolution, 1918–19. 
  2. The setting up of the Weimar Republic. The strengths and weaknesses of the new Constitution. 

Lessons

 

Lesson - The Nazis:A Warning From History - Helped to Power - Supporting Worksheet - How the Nazi party was formed and Adolf Hitler was able to rise to power. Interviewees include former Nazi party members and their opponents.

The Weimar Republic, 1918-24 - Why such troubled times? - Flipped reading activity

Test

 

Lesson - The Weimar Constitution - The rules of running a country and how different rules lead to not only democracy and dictatroship , but to a potentially infinite amount of variations even within democarcies. Students will study the purpose and aims of the Weimar Constition and critically reflect over the problems the Weimar Republic both inherited and created, as well as its ability to deal with them.

 

Voting Systems

 

Lesson - The Treaty of Versailles - Group Role Play simulation with members representing the UK, USA and France arguing to secure terms most favourable to their own national interest. In negotiating, arguing and compromising students will gain an insight into the motivatiosn behind punisihing Germany and the terms inflicted upon them.

 

Lesson - Exam Practice - Inference Questions: 4 Mark Questions

 

Lesson - The Sparctacist & Kapp Revolts - How did Weimar deal with the challeneges from both the LEFT and RIGHT wing of German politics and how we can use the political spectrum diagram to not just map these groups but undertsand their motivations.

 

Political Compass - Study your own political opinions and compare them to other historical and contemperary figures

 

Lesson - Exam Practice - Mini Essay: 12 Mark Questions

 

2 The early challenges to the Weimar Republic, 1919–23

  1. Reasons for the early unpopularity of the Republic, including the ‘stab in the back’ theory and the key terms of the Treaty of Versailles. 
  2. Challenges to the Republic from Left and Right: Spartacists, Freikorps, the Kapp Putsch. 
  3. The challenges of 1923: hyperinflation; the reasons for, and effects of, the French occupation of the Ruhr. 

Lessons

 

Lesson - Inflation and Hyperinflation - What is inflation and why it is imporatnt to understand then as now. How did Weimar create the economic catastrophe of 1923? How was it linked to WWI and the Teaty of Versailles? What were the economic, sopcial and political consequences and how are they interlinked

 

Worksheet - Hyperinflation

Worksheet - Make Germany Pay

Video

 

Lesson - The Year of Crisis - How did the Weimar Republic survive the financial crisis of 1923 brought on by their failure to keep up the reparation payments to the Allies. How did an economic event have such massive social and political consequences for Germany and how dd it contrubute to the failed Nazi attempt to seize power in Munich in 1923?

 

Lesson - The Recovery Years and Domestic Policies of Stresseman - How did Stresseman lead Germany into the Golden Years of the Weimar Republic between 1924 and 1929

 

3 The recovery of the Republic, 1924–29

  1. Reasons for economic recovery, including the work of Stresemann, the Rentenmark, the Dawes and Young Plans and American loans and investment. 

      2. The impact on domestic policies of Stresemann’s achievements abroad: the Locarno Pact, joining the League of Nations

          and the Kellogg-Briand Pact. 

 

Lessons 

 

Lesson - The Revovery Years & policies of Stresseman - Who was Gustav Stresseman, what policies did he initiate and how did they contribute to the recovery of Weimar Germany and usher in the Golden Years of 1924-29? Students will study how the economic, political and social conditions he established in Germany cemented the pouarity of democaracy and sileneced the exremist policies of Hitler until the fragile Golden Year were shattered by the Wall Street Crash of 1929 and exposed Weimars total dependnecy upon the state of the US economy.

 

Activity - Stressemen and The Golden Years

 

4 Changes in society,1924–29

  1. Changes in the standard of living, including wages, housing, unemployment insurance. 
  2. Changes in the position of women in work, politics and leisure. 
  3. Cultural changes: developments in architecture, art and the cinema. 

 

Lessons 

 

Lesson - Weimar Culture - How did the Weimar Republics liberalism and tolerance affect German culture and aggravate traditional; conservative Germans?

 

Activity - Collective Memory - Social, Cultural and Economic Change

Video

 

Lesson - How far had Weimar Recovered?

 

Key topic 2: Hitler’s rise to power, 1919-33

 

1 Early development of the Nazi Party, 1920–22

  1. Hitler’s early career: joining the German Workers’ Party and setting up the Nazi Party, 1919–20. 
  2. The early growth and features of the Party. The Twenty-Five Point Programme. The role of the SA. 

 

Lessons 

 

Lesson - The Rise of the Nazis - How did the Nazi Party grow as a consequence of the political, economic and social conditions Weimar experienecd in the years following the end of WWI? Students will study the factors that contributed to the rise of the Nazi Party and see how the Nazis thrived on the conditions that weakened the Weimar Republic.

 

Lesson - The Twenty-Five Points - What did the Nazi Party identify as its beliefs?

 

 

2 The Munich Putsch and the lean years, 1923–29

  1. The reasons for, events and consequences of the Munich Putsch. 
  2. Reasons for limited support for the Nazi Party, 1924–28. Party reorganisation and Mein Kampf. The Bamberg Conference of 1926. 

 

Lessons

 

Lesson - The Bamberg Conference - Students will investigate how Hitler reformed and redirected the Nazi Party's efforts after his relase from prison. He would reunify the Party and determine both his absolute control over it, through the Fuhrer Principle, as deciding that the Party could only obtain power legitimatly through the democratic process. Havin studied the Golden Years of Weimar achieved by Stressemen, students will understand how the economic, social and political factors that made Weimar strong are the factors that weakened the Nazis and brought about their wilderness years between 1924-29.

 

3 The growth in support for the Nazis, 1929–32

  1. The growth of unemployment – its causes and impact. The failure of successive Weimar governments to deal with unemployment from 1929 to January 1933. The growth of support for the Communist Party. 
  2. Reasons for the growth in support for the Nazi Party, including the appeal of Hitler and the Nazis, the effects of propaganda and the work of the SA. 

 

Lessons

 

Lesson - The Wall Street Crash

 

4 How Hitler became Chancellor, 1932–33

  1. Political developments in 1932. The roles of Hindenburg, Brüning, von Papen and von Schleicher. 
  2. The part played by Hindenburg and von Papen in Hitler becoming Chancellor in 1933. 

Lessons

 

Lesson - How did Hitler become Chancellor? 

 

Key topic 3: Nazi control and dictatorship, 1933–39

 

1 The creation of a dictatorship, 1933–34

  1. The Reichstag Fire. The Enabling Act and the banning of other parties and trade unions. 
  2. The threat from Röhm and the SA, the Night of the Long Knives and the death of von Hindenburg. Hitler becomes Führer, the army and oath of allegiance. 

Lessons

 

Lesson - How did Hitler become Dictator? How did Hitler take advantage of the deal made between Hindenberg and von Papen to use him to control Germany on their behalf and seize the initiative that would set him on the road to becoming dictator of Germany within less than two years

 

Lesson - The Reichstag Fire - Students will study the evidence as to whether or not they suspect Hitler as being guilty of arranging the fire. Either way, the consequences of the fire led to Germany being legitimatly turned effectivly into a police state under the pretext of preventing a Communist takeover. The powers gained through the Emergency Decree, his heightened prestige after the March election and subsequent Enabling Act legitimised all of Hitler's steps to remove extrenal opposition his his power

 

Lesson - The Night of The Long Knives - Following the removal of external threats to his power, Hitler would now tackles the internal challenge to his power by tackling Rohm , his oldest ally, and remove the threat the SA posed by refusing to stop challenging the Army's role as the sole bearer of arms within Germany. Despite their limited size, the Reichswher held the key to Hitler combing the offices of Chancellor and Presdient upon Hindenbergs death. 

 

Video

 

2 The police state

  1. The role of the Gestapo, the SS, the SD and concentration camps. 
  2. Nazi control of the legal system, judges and law courts. 
  3. Nazi policies towards the Catholic and Protestant Churches, including the Reich Church and the Concordat. 

 

Lessons

 

Lesson - The Nazis: A Warning From History - Chaos and Consent - Supporting Worksheet - Examines how the Nazis consolidated power and how extreme and radical policies were formed and implemented, using the example of the euthanasia policy of Philipp Bouhler. The help given to the Gestapo by ordinary citizens is also explored and other events covered include Kristallnacht and remilitarisation. Interviewees include former Nazi officials, an army officer, a Jewish man and an inmate of an early concentration camp.

 

Lesson - The Gestapo, SS and Law Courts - When the Nazis attempted to establish a Totalitarian State in Germany they would have to replace the democratic institutions of The Weimar Republic and replace them with those of a dictatorship. The Nazis employed a process called 'Gleichshaltung' or Coordination. In this lesson students will study the specifice deatiled applied to the Gestapo, the SS and Law Courts.

 

Video

 

Lesson - The Churches and Religion - When the Nazis attempted to establish a Totalitarian State in Germany they would have to replace the democratic institutions of The Weimar Republic and replace them with those of a dictatorship. The Nazis employed a process called 'Gleichshaltung' or Coordination. In this lesson students will study the specifice deatiled applied to the Churches (Lutheran/Protestant and Roman Catholic).

 

Video

 

3 Controlling and influencing attitudes

  1. Goebbels and the Ministry of Propaganda: censorship, Nazi use of media, rallies and sport, including the Berlin Olympics of 1936. 
  2. Nazi control of culture and the arts, including art, architecture, literature and film. 

 

Lessons

 

Lesson - Goebbels and the Ministry of Propaganda - Totalitarianism would require a dictator, a police state and finlly the control of the media through propaganda and censorship. This third pillar of Total Control would be administerd and run by Joseph Goebells. He would use his role to enlighten the German people and ensur their loyalty through controlling the truth. His empire would span radio, cinema, culture, the arts and infiltrate every aspect of German life.

 

Video

 

4 Opposition, resistance and conformity

  1. The extent of support for the Nazi regime. 
  2. Opposition from the Churches, including the role of Pastor Niemöller. 
  3. Opposition from the young, including the Swing Youth and the Edelweiss Pirates. 

Lessons

 

Lesson - Religion and the Churches

Video

 

Key topic 4: Life in Nazi Germany, 1933–39

 

1 Nazi policies towards women

  1. Nazi views on women and the family. 
  2. Nazi policies towards women, including marriage and family, employment and appearance. 

Lessons

 

Lesson

2 Nazi policies towards the young

  1. Nazi aims and policies towards the young. The Hitler Youth and the League of German Maidens. 
  2. Nazi control of the young through education, including the curriculum and teachers. 

Lessons

 

Lesson - Controlling the Youth - Students will watch The Wave - Supporing Worksheet - to understand the process by which Hitler was able to manipulate and control the youth of Germany. Why did the youth follow Hitler and the Nazis whilst fewer resisted?

 

'Yes, I remember the Wave, it was one of the most frightening classroom experiences I ever had. It all started when we were studying Nazi Germany.’

 

Video - The Wave (1981)

 

Lesson - The Hitler Youth What challenges did the youth of Germany pose to the Nazis upon coming to power. How would Hitler channle the natural rebelliousness of youth into somehting that would productive for him and consistent with both his aims for a master race and total control?

 

Lesson - Women =- How would women fit into the Nazi plan

 

Lesson - Education

 

3 Employment and living standards 

  1. Nazi policies to reduce unemployment, including labour service, autobahns, rearmament and invisible unemployment. 
  2. Changes in the standard of living, especially of German workers. The Labour Front, Strength Through Joy, Beauty of Labour. 

 

Lesson - Nazi Economic Policy - How would Hitler delievr on the promises made to his electrotae, providing ;'Work, Braed and Freedom', whilst at the same time ensuring the he started Germany's rapid millitarisation. Balancing the demands of both the consumer and millitary would be Hitler's 'Butter and Guns' dillema. Handing over economic policy to Haljmar Schacht, he would pursue these conflicting aims (The New Plan) until 1937 when his policies of credit (MEFO Bills), bartering and secret printing of money would become unsustainable, forcng his resignation and the appointment of Goering. Latterly, he would direct the economy through the Fut Year Plan to gear Germany for war. Both plans created the ilusion of an economic miracle, a propaganda veneer that fooled people into believeing the Nazis had solved Germany's economic woes.

 

4 The persecution of minorities

  1. Nazi racial beliefs and policies and the treatment of minorities: Slavs, ‘gypsies’, homosexuals and those with disabilities. 
  2. The persecution of the Jews, including the boycott of Jewish shops and businesses (1933), the Nuremberg Laws and Kristallnacht. 
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